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The Hodgkin–Huxley model of an action potential in the squid giant axon has been the basis for much of the current understanding of the ionic bases of action potentials.
Briefly, the model states that the generation of an action potential is determined by two ions: Na and K .
When ionotropic receptors are activated, certain ion species such as Na to enter the postsynaptic neuron, which depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.
If more of the same type of postsynaptic receptors are activated, then more Na will enter the postsynaptic membrane and depolarize cell.
Neurons are cells that are specialized to receive, propagate, and transmit electrochemical impulses.
In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.
Such a process is also known as a positive feedback loop.
As the rising phase reaches its peak, voltage-gated Na channels are inactivated whereas voltage-gated K channels are activated, resulting in a net outward movement of K ions, which repolarizes the membrane potential towards the resting membrane potential.